- 1 Introduction to object-oriented programming
- 2 What is object-oriented programming (OOP)?
- 3 Why we need OOPs in the Programming language?
- 4 Features of Object-Oriented Programming (OPPs)
- 5 Building blocks of Object-Oriented Programming (OPPs)
- 6 Characteristic Features of Object-Oriented Programming (OPPs)
- 7 List of Object-oriented programming languages
Introduction to object-oriented programming
As the software becomes more complicated, The codebase is becoming huge with more program logic. So, it is necessary to think about the structure of the program in advance. In sophisticated software, it is a must to structure a software program into simple, reusable pieces of code. Object-Oriented Programming (OOPs) has all the required features.
What is object-oriented programming (OOP)?
Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is programming that helps to structure a software program into simple, reusable pieces of code. OPPs organizes software design around class, objects, and data, rather than functions and logic. In Procedural oriented programming, we write methods that perform operations on the data, but in object-oriented programming, we create objects that contain data and behaviour.
For example, If a car were designed as a single unit, then that would be enormously complex. However, if we broke the car unit into multiple instead of one group such as the engine, gearbox parts, drive axle, steering and suspension, brakes, etc. the individual design items become simpler. As, each component is designed independently, tested, and then assembled into the final product, i.e. Car. The different parts can also be broken down further.
Why we need OOPs in the Programming language?
Object-oriented methodology, allow structuring a program such a way that it can be reusable, more reliable, and easier to maintain. It provides facility to prevents unwanted access to data, methods or exposing code. It also allows us to change the implementation of an object without affecting any other system.
In short, OOPs has the features to provide Security(abstraction), modularity, sharing (Inheritance), Easy to maintain codebase, Controlling data accessibility (Access Specifiers), Readability which makes OOP’s better choice.
Features of Object-Oriented Programming (OPPs)
Object-Oriented Programming (OOPs) has the following advantages:
- OOPs provides facility to prevents unwanted access to codebase.
- OOPs provides a modular structure for programs that makes it useful for defining abstract data types where implementation details can be hidden.
- OOP makes it easy to maintain and modify existing code without affecting the existing system.
- OOP’s emphasis on reusability and sharing instead of duplicity.
Building blocks of Object-Oriented Programming (OPPs)
Below are the basic building blocks of Object-Oriented Programming (OOPs)
In OOPs, all real-world entities such as Person, Car, or Animal are treated as objects. The programming structure is designed in terms of objects and nature of communication between them. In a program, objects can interact with each other.
Class is a collection of data members and member functions, which can be accessed and used by creating an instance of that class. It’s like user-defined blueprint or template which is used to create an object.
For example, Car is class, different types of the Car such as Maruti, Toyota, Mahindra can be treated as its object.
A property is a data member declared inside the class that is used to read, write, or compute the value of a private field of a class.
The method is a combination of instructions coupled together to achieve the result. It may take arguments and may or may not return the result.
Characteristic Features of Object-Oriented Programming (OPPs)
Below are the Characteristic Features of Object-Oriented Programming (OOPs), Its also called as four pillars of oop
Data Abstraction and Encapsulation
Abstraction provides flexibility to show only essential features without including the background details (hiding background details). Classes use the concept of abstraction by specifying access modifiers. Storing data members and methods into a single unit (class) is encapsulation. Encapsulation is the act of hiding the functionality of a class so that the internal operations are hidden, and irrelevant, to the outsider.
In OOP, inheritance is used for reusability. Suppose some features already exist in a class then derive another class from the existing class. So the newly created class can acquire the properties and methods from other classes. Inheritance is achieved by deriving a child class from the existing one. So, The child class will contain features of both the classes.
Polymorphism provides the ability for an object to change the behavior according to how it is being used. The response depends on the data types used in the operation or object types.
Object-oriented concepts remain the same in every OOPs programming language, i.e. object-oriented programming java and object-oriented programming in c++ conceptual represent the same concepts.
List of Object-oriented programming languages
- VB .NET
We are going to discuss in detail about each features OOPs concepts in the following post.