Being human, we always concern about our privacy. Privacy plays a significant role in our lives, right from starting on the day till the end of the day. As part of privacy, we want our data, message to be secure. A common example is when we send a text message mostly expecting that only intended recipients should receive it.
So being intelligent, human started manipulating a message in such ways that only the intended recipient should understand it. Manipulating a message is very old technique to make sure data is secure. If we look back into history, In 44 BC Julius Caesar uses the technique now called Caesar Cipher to send secret message. He used to shift the message letter by three positions down the alphabet. So, D would be replaced by A, E would become B, and so on.
Basically, secret writing is called Cryptography. From the ancient times to this modern world, Cryptography has evolved rapidly. In today’s era almost every application, every message which we sent, phone call we make, TV, Internet everything uses Cryptography.
Now manipulating message or data in such ways that apart from the intended user no one can read it, is an Art. It has its own challenges and different, unique ways to hide the actual message data.
Earlier the Cryptography depends on mathematics. We can call Mathematics as Art but not Science. Modern cryptography is the intersection of the mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science. So Modern Cryptography is not only limited with mathematics anymore, it’s required bit of experiments and systematic study to understand Cryptography.
Today perfect security is not present, we called system secure until there is no efficient algorithm available to break the system. So, to make sure there is no efficient algorithm, needs experiments. I would say Modern Cryptography is the mixture of Art and Science. Art helps to invent a new system, Science helps to prove ability to it.